National conveniences.

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National conveniences.
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James Gillray

National conveniences.

Etching

Bohn c. 1850

360 x 260 mm

£120.

Originally published 25th. January 1796 Four designs on one pl. [1] 'English Convenience - the Water Closet'. A grossly obese alderman of repulsive appearance sits full-face, clasping his sides. He wears his gown and chain, one gouty leg is swathed in bandages. On the wall behind his head are two placards: 'Bill of Fare, - Turtle Soup Fish Poultry H . . .' and a broadside, 'Roast Beef of old England headed by a sirloin'. For the history of this English contribution to civilization see M. and H. B. Quennell, 'Hist. of Everyday Things in England 1733-1851', 1933. It derives from an invention of Sir John Harington, see P. Lindsay, 'One Dagger for Two', 1932, p. 178. [2] 'Scotch Convenience - the Bucket'. A woman seated in back view on a pair of tongs across a bucket in some sort of permanent shelter composed of ramshackle planks. On this are two papers: 'The Sweets of Edinbro' to the Tune of Tweedside' (cf. BMSat 5941) and 'Croudie a Scotch Reel'. In the foreground are pigs and poultry. [3] 'French Convenience - le Commodites'. A pretty young woman, full-face, in a latrine with three apertures. She crouches with one foot on the ground, one on the seat. On the wall are two papers: 'Caira nouvelle chanson' and 'Soupe Maigre petit Chanson.' [4] 'Dutch Convenience - the Lake'. A stout man (? or woman) in back view sits on a rail, smoking a pipe. In the foreground is shallow water with ducks. Behind and in close proximity are town houses with high crow-stepped gables